Biology Question


The sequence of nitrogen bases along a DNA strand can be thought of as the recipe or list of ingredients to make proteins, which our bodies need to function properly. Any change or variation to this ingredient list can influence the “final product,” and in genetic terms this is known as a mutation.

In this lab activity, we will apply what we have learned about DNA and protein synthesis to predict the outcome of various mutations, focusing on the human gene for dystrophin. Dystrophin is a protein that helps build healthy muscle, and mutations in the associated gene can lead to the disease Muscular Dystrophy (MD). MD is a group of diseases that cause progressive weakness and loss of muscle mass. There are many different kinds of MD, and symptoms of the most common variety begin in childhood. Some people who have MD will eventually lose the ability to walk, or have trouble breathing or swallowing. There is no cure for MD, but medications and therapy can help manage symptoms and slow the course of the disease.

Here we are focusing on the relationship between mutations and disease, but it is important to remember that the vast majority of mutations are actually “neutral”, meaning they have little to no direct impact on an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce. Furthermore, mutations increase genetic diversity, which is key to the success and continuation of all populations (a point we will return to in a future lab).

Activity Instructions

You will be conducting genetic research, working with DNA samples from twin brothers. Liam has MD, but his twin brother Elijah does not. After comparing Liam and Elijah’s DNA sequences for the dystrophin gene, you have identified five differences and specified their locations within the DNA sequences (Table 1). The sequence for Elijah’s “normal” dystrophin gene is also provided below. Use this information in combination with the material from the DNA & Protein Synthesis Module to answer the following questions and predict which of the five mutations in Liam’s DNA is the most likely cause of his MD. HINT: Assume that both Elijah’s and Liam’s sequences produced a protein.

Elijah’s “Normal” Dystrophin Sequence

In the DNA sequence listed below, Exon segments are denoted by capital letters, and intron segments are denoted by lowercase letters

Passive Strand


Template Strand


Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!