Design A Quasi Or A True Experimental Study, Investigating The Impact Of The Independent Variable On The Dependent Variable. - Academia Essay Writers

Design A Quasi Or A True Experimental Study, Investigating The Impact Of The Independent Variable On The Dependent Variable.

Design A Quasi Or A True Experimental Study, Investigating The Impact Of The Independent Variable On The Dependent Variable.

Design A Quasi Or A True Experimental Study, Investigating The Impact Of The Independent Variable On The Dependent Variable.


design a quasi or a true experimental study, investigating the impact of the independent variable on the dependent variable.

Address the following in 500-750 words:

  1. Design either a quasi or experimental study to investigate the variables. What is the hypothesis? Describe the types of hypotheses with respect to testing. What does the experimental method allow that the correlation design does not?
  • attachmentVideoGamesandAgression2.pdf

Violent Video Games and Physical Aggression: Evidence for a Selection Effect Among Adolescents

Johannes Breuer University of Münster

Jens Vogelgesang University of Erfurt

Thorsten Quandt University of Münster

Ruth Festl University of Münster and University of


Longitudinal studies investigating the relationship of aggression and violent video games are still scarce. Most of the previous studies focused on children or younger adolescents and relied on convenience samples. This paper presents data from a 1-year longitudinal study of N � 276 video game players aged 14 to 21 drawn from a representative sample of German gamers. We tested both whether the use of violent games predicts physical aggression (i.e., the socialization hypothesis) and whether physical aggression predicts the subsequent use of violent games (i.e., the selection hypothesis). The results support the selection hypotheses for the group of adolescents aged 14 to 17. For the group of young adults (18 –21), we found no evidence for both the socialization and the selection hypothesis. Our findings suggest that the use of violent video games is not a substantial predictor of physical aggression, at least in the later phases of adolescence and early adulthood. The differences we found between the age groups show that age plays an important role in the relationship of aggression and violent video games and that research in this area can benefit from a more individu- alistic perspective that takes into account both intraindividual developmental change and interindividual differences between players.

Keywords: video games, violence, aggression, adolescents, young adults

From the earliest investigations into the rela- tionship of video game1 use and aggression in the 1980s (Cooper & Mackie, 1986; Dominick, 1984; Silvern & Williamson, 1987; Winkel, Novak, & Hopson, 1987) until today, hundreds

of experimental and correlational studies have been conducted. Despite the large number of studies, the debate about the link between video games and aggression is ongoing, not only in politics and the mass media, but also within academia (Bushman & Huesmann, 2014; Elson & Ferguson, 2014a, 2014b; Krahé, 2014; War- burton, 2014). While all of the available meta- analyses (Anderson et al., 2010; Ferguson, 2007; Ferguson & Kilburn, 2009; Sherry, 2001, 2007) found a relationship between aggression and the use of (violent) video games, the size and interpretation of this connection differ largely between these studies; as do the defini-

1 We use the term video games as an umbrella term that includes all types of digital games, whether they are played on a PC, home consoles, handhelds, or mobile devices. We decided to use “video game” because it is the most common term in the literature and it is easier to read than the composite “computer and video games” or the more aca- demic denomination “digital games.”

This article was published Online First February 16, 2015.

Johannes Breuer, Department of Communication, Uni- versity of Münster; Jens Vogelgesang, Department of Com- munication, University of Erfurt; Thorsten Quandt, Depart- ment of Communication, University of Münster; Ruth Festl, Department of Communication, University of Münster, and Department of Communication, University of Hohenheim.

The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Pro- gramme (FP7/2007–2013) under grant agreement number 240864 (SOFOGA).

Correspondence concerning this article should be ad- dressed to Johannes Breuer, Department of Communication, University of Münster, Bispinghof 9-14, 48143 Münster, Germany. E-mail:

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Psychology of Popular Media Culture © 2015 American Psychological Association 2015, Vol. 4, No. 4, 305–328 2160-4134/15/$12.00


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