I have wrote a paper and need revisions based off of the rubric.
During the glycolysis the
pyruvate that is formed glucose metabolic reactions. During the aerobic state
the pyruvate starts in the mitochondria to become oxidized through a process of
oxidation in the Krebs cycle. In
the electron transport chains there will be transferring of hydrogen protons H+
and electrons from NADH and FADH2 to carriers along the chain. But at certain 3
points, some carriers can’t take protons, so they will take the electrons only
and complete the way, and the protons will be pumped out to the inter-membrane
space leading to a proton gradient (Hudon-Miller, S. (2012).
This products of the Krebs
cycle are energy found in the form of ATP, NADH, and FADH2. The four protein
molecules in the ETC. Complex 1 acts on pumping H+ ions from matrix in the
inter membrane space. Complex 2 accept FADH2 and provides electrons to ETC.
Ubiquinone electrons are passed in them to cytochrome complex 3 which
transports to fourth complex. The fourth complex decreases oxygen, so they
accept up 2 H+ from surrounding to form water. The entering of electrons
results to form of proton gradient, this due to ETC which pumps the H+ from the
matrix and entering membrane space. Thus there’s more protons outside than
inside. Complex one and three are reliable for transferring protons via the
When explaining the formation of proton gradient in the ETC you will need to focus on the role of protein complexes.
Name all of the protein complexes involved in formation of the proton gradient:
Next, you will need to explain how does the proton gradient lead to ATP production.
Make sure to name the enzyme involved in that process.
This course mentor video discusses the formation of proton gradient, starting at 6:25 min:
“Electron Transport Chain” – Dr. Jennie Sanders, 2013