DNA, Genes and Protein Synthesis Activity 13: Protein Synthesis is the process by which cells produce (synthesize) proteins. An overview of the process is shown in model 2 (below). Gone 2 Gene 1 Gene 3 DNA strand3 TRANSLATION Protein Trp Gly Model 2 ACTIVITY and QUESTIONS 1. Based on the information you can gather from model 1 complete the following sentences: a. The nucleotide Adenine (A) always pairs with the nucleotide b. The nucleotide Guanine (G) always pairs with the nucleotide . . 40
DNA, Genes,and Protein Synthesis Activity 13: 2. The bases that interact with each other are called complementary bases. this definition and your answers to 1 complete the following: a. Thiamine (T) is the complementary base of b. Cytosine (C) is the complementary base of c. Adenine (A) is the complementary base of d. Guanine (G) is the complementary base of Based on 3. Shown below is the nucleotide sequence for one strand of a stretch of DNA Write the nucleotide sequence of the complementary strand of DNA AGCTGACCTAGCGGACAA 4. Protein synthesis is a multi-step process (see model 2) First the genetic information contained in the DNA sequence is used to synthesize a new molecule of mRNA. Based on the information in model 2 answer the following: a. The process of synthesizing a mRNA strand is called b. In mRNA the complementary base of Adenine (A) is c. Write the mRNA strand that would be synthesized by the following DNA sequence: AGCT GACCTAGCGGACAA 41
Activity 13: DNA, Genes, and Protein Synthesis 5. During the second stage of protein synthesis the ribosome ‘reads’ (or decodes) the mRNA sequence to produce a specific polypeptide chain. Based on the information in model 2 answer the following: a. How may nucleotides on the mRNA strand codes for a single amino acid? b. The mRNA code that instructs for the placement of a specific amino acid is called a c. According to model 2 the codon for the amino acid tryptophan (Trp) is d. According to model 2 the codon for the amino acid serine (Ser) is e. How may codons are there in the mRNA strand you synthesized in step 4(c)? 6. his eu The table above lists the genetic code (or codons) for each of the 20 amino acids. Based on the information given in this table answer the following a. The codon for the amino acid Methionine Met) is b. The codon for the amino acid Leucine (Leu) is c. The codon CCC codes for the amino acid d. How many codon code for the amino acid Valine (Val)? e. How are the codons that code for Valine (identified above) different from one or 42
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