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Memory Foundations and Applications


Memory Foundations and Applications

Memory Foundations and Applications


Memory Foundations and Applications

Third Edition

Bennett L. Schwartz Florida International University


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All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America

ISBN: 978-1-5063-2653-5

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

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Brief Contents 1. Preface 2. 1. Introduction to the Study of Memory 3. 2. Memory and the Brain 4. 3. Working Memory 5. 4. Episodic Memory 6. 5. Semantic Memory 7. 6. Visual Memory 8. 7. Autobiographical Memory 9. 8. False Memory

10. 9. Metamemory 11. 10. Memory Disorders 12. 11. Memory in Childhood 13. 12. Memory in Older Adults 14. 13. Memory Improvement and Learning Efficiency: A User’s Guide 15. Glossary 16. References 17. Author Index 18. Subject Index 19. About the Author

Detailed Contents Preface 1 Introduction to the Study of Memory

The Science of Memory The History of Memory Research

Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909) Mary Calkins (1863–1930) Behaviorism Frederic Bartlett (1886–1969) Endel Tulving (1927– ) Cognitive Psychology Elizabeth Loftus (1944– ) Cognitive Neuroscience

Section Quiz Methods of Studying Memory Memory Measures

Recall Recognition Implicit Memory Tests Reaction Time Source Judgments Metamemory Judgments Summary of Memory Measures Neuropsychology Animal Models Neuroimaging

Section Summary and Quiz Improving Memory Efficiency Themes for the Book Summary Key Terms Review Questions Online Resources

2 Memory and the Brain Old Questions, New Answers

Brain and Memory Neurons

Neurotransmitters Structures of the Human Brain

Subcortical Structures Cortical Areas of the Brain Associated With Memory

Interim Summary and Quiz Methods in Cognitive Neuroscience

EEG (Electroencephalography) Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologies Brain Stimulation Techniques

Section Quiz Neuropsychology: Memory Deficits and Amnesia Chemical Enhancement of Memory Olfaction, Memory, and the Brain Memory, Music, and the Brain Summary Key Terms Review Questions Online Resources

3 Working Memory What Is Working Memory? Some Terminological Clarifications Sensory Memory Working Memory Capacity

Pronunciation Time The Duration of Information in Working Memory The Serial Position Curve and Its Implication for Working Memory Section Summary and Quiz The Working Memory Model of Baddeley Working Memory Systems

The Phonological Loop Visuospatial Sketchpad The Episodic Buffer

The Central Executive Section Summary and Quiz Working Memory and the Brain Applications of Working Memory

Reading Fluency Verbal Fluency Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Alzheimer’s Disease

Summary Key Terms Review Questions Online Resources

4 Episodic Memory Evidence for the Episodic/Semantic Distinction

Behavioral Evidence Neuropsychological Evidence Evidence From Neuroimaging

Section Summary and Quiz Memory Processes: Encoding, Representation, and Retrieval (Part I)

Encoding in Episodic Memory Levels of Processing Applications of Levels of Processing The Self-Reference Effect Survival Processing The Generation Effect Organization Distinctiveness

Section Summary and Quiz Memory Processes: Encoding, Representation, and Retrieval (Part II)

Retrieval From Episodic Memory Encoding Specificity Inhibition in Episodic Memory Retrieval-Induced Inhibition Part-Set Cueing

Directed Forgetting

Prospective Memory Summary Key Terms Review Questions Online Resources

5 Semantic Memory Associative Structures in Semantic Memory Semantic Priming and Lexical Decision Tasks Sentence Verification Tasks Bilingual Representation Section Summary and Quiz Concepts and Categories

Categories Are Fuzzy Family Resemblance Exemplar Theory and Feature Comparison Theory Prototype Theory Situated Simulation Theory

Section Summary and Quiz Schemas and Scripts

Reconstruction of Events Semantic Memory and Music Language, Lexical Memory, and Semantic Memory Section Quiz Summary Key Terms Review Questions Online Resources

6 Visual Memory Visual Memory: Recognition and Recall Representation and Imagery

Shepard and Metzler’s Mental Rotation Experiment Neuroimaging and the Analog View

Section Summary and Quiz Other Topics in Visual Memory Photographic Memory: Reality or Fantasy? Cognitive Maps Memory for Faces

Simultaneous and Sequential Lineups in Eyewitness Memory Own-Race Bias The Neuroscience of Face Memory

Section Summary and Quiz Application of Visual Imagery to Mnemonics

Method of Loci Keyword Technique Pegword Mnemonic Interactive Versus Bizarre Imagery

Summary Key Terms Review Questions Online Resources

7 Autobiographical Memory Conway’s Theory of Representation in Autobiographical Memory

Event-Specific Memories General Events Lifetime Periods The Working Self

Section Summary and Quiz Childhood Amnesia

Psychodynamic View Age-Related Changes in Self-Concept Neurological Transitions in Memory Systems Influence of Language on Memory Development Childhood Amnesia May Result From Multiple Causes

Flashbulb Memories Accuracy of Flashbulb Memories Theories of Flashbulb Memory Formation

Collaborative Memory Section Summary and Quiz Diary Studies and Autobiographical Memory The Cue-Word Technique for Eliciting Autobiographical Memories and the Reminiscence Bump Aspects of Autobiographical Memory

Field and Observer Memories Involuntary Memories

Disputed Memories Music and Autobiographical Memory Sense of Smell and Autobiographical Memory

The Neuroscience of Autobiographical Memory Summary Key Terms Review Questions Online Resources

8 False Memory Correspondence, Accuracy, and Amount Source Monitoring Methods of Studying False Memory

Deese-Roediger-McDermott Procedure (DRM) Visual False Memory Procedure False Memory Induction Procedure Imagination Inflation Fabricated or Altered Evidence

Section Summary and Quiz Hypnosis and Memory Recovered Memory: The Reality of Repression

Mechanisms of Repression and Recovery Failure to Rehearse Retrieval Suppression

False Memories and Legal Psychology Eyewitness Testimony

Effects of Wording on Memory of an Accident The Misinformation Effect

Explanations for the Misinformation Effect Section Summary and Quiz The Cognitive Interview: More Information Without Suggestion Summary Key Terms Review Questions Online Resources

9 Metamemory What Is Metamemory? Theories of Metamemory

Direct-Access Theories Indirect or Inferential Theories

Section Summary and Quiz Types of Judgments

Tip-of-the-Tongue States Brain Mechanisms Feeling of Knowing Mechanisms of Feeling of Knowing Brain Mechanisms of Feeling of Knowing Neuropsychology and Feeling of Knowing Judgments of Learning Factors That Influence Judgments of Learning Brain Mechanisms for Judgments of Learning

Section Summary and Quiz Control Processes in Metamemory

Labor-in-Vain Effect Region of Proximal Learning Control Processes at Retrieval TOTs and Retrieval Time A Note on Accuracy

Other Kinds of Metamemory Retrospective Confidence The Déjà vu Experience

Summary Key Terms Review Questions Online Resources

10 Memory Disorders What Is Amnesia? Case Studies of Amnesia

Patient HM Clive Wearing

Anterograde Amnesia Implicit Memory in the Amnesic Syndrome Awareness in the Amnesic Syndrome Simulated Anterograde Amnesia

Section Summary and Quiz


Retrograde Amnesia Electroconvulsive Therapy Korsakoff’s Disease

Frontal Syndrome Behavioral Issues in Frontal Patients

Transient Global Amnesia Short-Term Memory Amnesia Reduplicative Paramnesia and Capgrass Syndrome Section Summary and Quiz Psychogenic Amnesia

Dissociative Amnesia Dissociative Fugue Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Repression

Alzheimer’s Disease Causes of Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

Memory Rehabilitation Summary Key Terms Review Questions Online Resources

11 Memory in Childhood Memory in Infancy

Visual Recognition Nonnutritive Sucking Conjugate Reinforcement Technique Imitation Memory for Language in Infancy Semantic Memory Episodic Memory

Section Summary and Quiz Memory in Early Childhood

Why Does Memory Improve During Early Childhood? Memory Strategies View Memory Efficiency View Episodic Memory

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