NUR 641E Discussions And Assignment Papers - Academia Essay Writers

NUR 641E Discussions And Assignment Papers

NUR 641E Discussions And Assignment Papers

NUR 641E Discussions And Assignment Papers

NUR 641E

Topic 1: General Physiological And Pathophysiological Concepts

Objectives:

  1. Describe principles of immunology in disease processes.
  2. Evaluate the inflammatory response as a defense mechanism.
  3. Evaluate the principles of cellular alterations in infection and the medications that treat infection.
  4. Describe a pharmacological intervention using an evidence-based treatment guideline.

Topic 1 DQ 1

Start Date

Mar 3, 2022, 12:00 AM

Due Date

Mar 5, 2022, 11:59 PM

Points

5

Status

Published

Assessment Description

Part 1

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What are the differences between primary and secondary line of defense? What factors interfere with these mechanisms? How are these levels of immunity affected in a child, an elderly person, or a person with a chronic disease? Include active, passive, innate, and acquired immunity.

Part 2

Choose an inflammatory or infectious process and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Make sure that you select a different medical condition than your peers. Include the name of the medical condition in the subject line so that the medical condition can be followed. Include your references in APA style. NUR 641E Discussions And Assignment Papers

Cristina Alimon

Posted Date

Mar 12, 2022, 8:21 PM

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Replies to Vanessa Brown

Proton Pump Inhibitor (Omeprazole)

Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a family of medications best recognized for their use in treating acid-related illnesses. When used as part of an all-natural treatment plan with other medicines, this effect can help heal a peptic ulcer, treat gastroesophageal reflux disease, treat Barrett’s esophagus, and even get rid of Helicobacter pylori (Ahmed & Clarke, 2021). With my experience in home health nursing before, most older patients take Omeprazole, especially if they have multiple drug maintenance. Some of the patients were prescribed maybe eight or more medications, and one of those is Omeprazole. Most of the time, they are discharged from hospital admission new medication will be added. It was always a struggle to coordinate with multiple physicians that the patient is seeing to verify the necessary medication they need to take as long term, and that is only short term. There was a patient that during the initial intake visit I asked him about why he is taking Omeprazole, he said because of GERD from all the medications that he is taking. Therefore, it is essential to be careful about our older patients’ medications. Because the more medications they are taking, the more susceptible they are to the adverse reactions from medications. Therefore, it is essential to educate the patient, give them an updated medication list, and instruct them or the family that they bring all the medication they are taking each time they see a physician to avoid duplication or unnecessary medication prescription.  

Pharmacokinetics of Proton Pump Inhibitor 

Absorption

The proximal small bowel absorbs these drugs, and when they reach the stomach’s parietal cells, they influence the cells (Ahmed & Clarke, 2021). The proton pump is an enzyme in the parietal cells that PPIs stop. This enzyme is the last step in releasing acid into the stomach, and it does this job very well.

Metabolism

Omeprazole is broken down by the hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme system, mainly through CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 isozymes. It has a short half-life of a half-hour to an hour in healthy people and about three hours for people who have a problem with their liver (Shah, 2020).

Distribution

Within an hour of taking Omeprazole, the drug’s effects start to slow down. It takes two hours for the drug’s full effects to kick in. The effects of the drug last for about 72 hours after it is taken, and they usually wear off in 3 to 5 days. It will take four days for the effects to level off when taking medicine every day (Shah, 2020).

Excretion

Urinary excretion is the principal mechanism of omeprazole metabolite elimination (Shah, 2020).

Reference

Ahmed, A., & Clarke, J. O. (2021, August 1). Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) – StatPearls – NCBI bookshelf. National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557385/

Shah, G. W. (2020, October 17). Omeprazole – StatPearls – NCBI bookshelf. National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539786/

Topic 1 DQ 2

GO TO DISCUSSION

Start Date

Mar 3, 2022, 12:00 AM

Due Date

Mar 7, 2022, 11:59 PM

Points

5

Status

Published

Assessment Description

Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

NUR 641E Discussions And Assignment Papers Topic 1 DQ 2

Mar 3-7, 2022

Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

CA

Cristina Alimon

Posted Date

Mar 7, 2022, 11:39 PM

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Replies to Cristina Alimon

Cyclophosphamide

Cyclophosphamide, with the brand name of Cytoxan, is one of the medications given for Goodpasture disease to suppress the immune system in making anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies. Primarily this medication is for cancer like ovaries, breasts, blood, and others.

Mechanism of action

Cyclophosphamide is a cancer drug under a class of alkylating agents. The CYP450 system converts cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide to hydroxylated intermediates in the liver. The active chemicals phosphoramide mustard, and acrolein, are formed from the hydroxylated intermediates. The phosphoramide mustard reacts with DNA, causing cytotoxicity (LaPlant, & May 2019). Cyclophosphamide slows the development of cancer cells, which the body eventually destroys. Other side effects may develop because cyclophosphamide affects normal cell growth.

Hints for monitoring

Cyclophosphamide can temporarily reduce white blood cell counts, increasing the risk of infection and reducing the platelet count required for blood clotting (Mayo Clinic, 2022). Particular care must be taken to avoid infection or bleeding. Therefore, it is essential to instruct the patient to follow bleeding precautions. Avoiding contact sports and other circumstances that might cause bruising, cuts, and brushing or flossing teeth; monitor for signs of bleeding like bruises, blood in the urine or stools, or tiny red patches on the skin. Cyclophosphamide may reduce the body’s resistance, causing the vaccination to fail or the illness to occur; the patient should also avoid others who have received live virus vaccinations since they may spread the infection to the patient (Mayo Clinic, 2022).

Side effects

More common side effects are cough or hoarseness, fever or chills; lower back or side pain; missing menstrual periods; and painful or difficult urination (Mayo Clinic, 2022). The following side effects with high doses and long-term treatment are blood in the urine; dizziness, confusion, or agitation; fast heartbeat; joint pain; shortness of breath; swelling of the feet or lower legs; and unusual tiredness or weakness. Studies on nursing mothers show detrimental impacts on babies. It should be provided an alternative or discontinue nursing while using it.

Drug interaction

Cyclophosphamide has notable drug interactions with phenobarbital, phenytoin, digoxin, and anticoagulants (LaPlant, & May 2019). Chronic high dosages of phenobarbital enhance the metabolism and leukopenic action of cyclophosphamide. Therefore, warfarin’s impact is enhanced or decreased in individuals receiving warfarin plus cyclophosphamide (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2021).

References:

LaPlant, K., & May, P. (2019). Anticancer Drugs. In K. Whalen (Ed.), Lippincott® illustrated reviews: Pharmacology (7th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

Mayo Clinic. (2022, February 14). Cyclophosphamide (Oral route, intravenous route) description and brand names – Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/cyclophosphamide-oral-route-intravenous-route/description/drg-20063307

U.S. National Library of Medicine. (2021, September 28). Cyclophosphamide injection, solution. DailyMed. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a0e99679-f939-4fb3-9d38-dfdb824f89bc

Topic 2: Principles For Safe Use Of Pharmacologic And Herbal Substances

Mar 10-16, 2022

Max Points:197

Objectives:

  1. Analyze the impact of pharmacologic agents on a patient’s health status considering physiology, pathophysiology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and patient knowledge.
  2. Evaluate drug actions to promote safe and effective drug therapy.
  3. Identify ethnic, cultural, and genetic differences in patients that may affect the safety or efficacy of medications.
  4. Integrate knowledge of pathophysiology and pharmacology into teaching and educational materials in diverse settings.

Assessments

Collapse All AssessmentsCollapse All

Topic 2 DQ 1

GO TO DISCUSSION

Start Date

Mar 10, 2022, 12:00 AM

Due Date

Mar 12, 2022, 11:59 PM

Points

5

Status

Published

Assessment Description

The Beer’s criteria contain a list of drugs that are potentially unsafe for use in older persons. Utilize the provided resource, “American Geriatrics Society 2019 Updated AGS Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults” for assistance in completing this question. Select a drug on the “avoid” list that you have administered to an older patient or a drug that you know is prescribed for an older adult. Relate the outcome of using this drug to the pharmacokinetics (absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion) of drugs in an older client. In addition to the link, cite one other reference to support your post. Make sure that you select a different drug than your peers. Include the name of the drug in the subject line so that the drugs can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

Topic 2 DQ 2

GO TO DISCUSSION

Start Date

Mar 10, 2022, 12:00 AM

Due Date

Mar 14, 2022, 11:59 PM

Points

5

Status

Published

Assessment Description

Many people are using herbal medications and dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of medical problems. Review two current research articles about two of these products. Based on the findings, what would be the implications for you as a nurse? What additional research needs to be done in this area? Cite the two references to support your answer. Make sure that you select different herbal medications and dietary supplements than your peers. Include the name of the herbal medication and dietary supplement in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

Content Lesson Presentation

REVIEW ASSIGNMENT

Start Date

Mar 10, 2022, 12:00 AM

Due Date

Mar 16, 2022, 11:59 PM

Points

167

Rubric

View Rubric

Status

Published

Assessment Description

Create an 8-9 slide presentation with speaker notes about a selected disease process and drug class. The presentation should provide content specific information on the selected disease process and drug class for staff or learners in a clinical environment.

Follow these steps:

  1. Select a disease process and a drug class used to treat the disease process.
  2. Describe pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug related to the pathophysiology of the disease process.
  3. Describe the product, its intended use, side effects, adverse reactions, and safety issues.
  4. Identify ethnic, cultural, and genetic differences in patients that may affect the safety or efficacy of medications.
  5. How would you monitor the desired effect is achieved?

Be sure to include three to five references.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are not required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite.

Topic 2 DQ 1

Mar 10-12, 2022

The Beer’s criteria contain a list of drugs that are potentially unsafe for use in older persons. Utilize the provided resource, “American Geriatrics Society 2019 Updated AGS Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults” for assistance in completing this question. Select a drug on the “avoid” list that you have administered to an older patient or a drug that you know is prescribed for an older adult. Relate the outcome of using this drug to the pharmacokinetics (absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion) of drugs in an older client. In addition to the link, cite one other reference to support your post. Make sure that you select a different drug than your peers. Include the name of the drug in the subject line so that the drugs can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

VB

Vanessa Brown

Posted Date

Mar 13, 2022, 12:52 AM

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Replies to Vanessa Brown

Zolpidem (Ambien)

Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine receptor modulator that is approved to be used as a short-term treatment for insomnia (Bouchette et al., 2022). It is a listed medication in the American Geriatrics Society 2019 Updated Criteria for Potentially Inappropriately Medication Use in Older Adults because the elderly can have similar adverse effects as with benzodiazepines, such as delirium, falls, and increased need for hospitalization. In my experience, we gave this medication cautiously to the elderly in the hospital. This was not a first-line of sleep-aids due to the possible adverse effects. I do remember some of our patients “sleepwalking” or becoming delirious after taking this, and then having no recollection of their activities in the morning. Luckily we were there to monitor and intervene, but it could lead to harm if they were left unattended.

Absorption

Zolpidem is rapidly absorbed by the digestive tract and has a short half-life in healthy patients (Bouchette et al., 2022). Elderly population have decreased motility. This population should only receive the lowest dose of 5 mg because their concentrations were higher in RCTs (Bouchette et al., 2022).

Metabolism

This medication is converted into an inactive metabolite. Hepatic impairment, especially in the elderly, will affect the metabolism and dosage of medication given (Bouchette et al., 2022).

Distribution

This drug has vast distribution throughout the body and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Other effects that zolpidem can have is restoring brain function in patients that are in a vegetative state after brain injury (Bouchette et al., 2022).

Excretion

Zolpidem is excreted by the kidneys (Bouchette et al., 2022). Clearance will be decreased in the elderly.

References

Bouchette, D., Akhondi, H., & Quick, J. (2022). Zolpidem. StatPearlshttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK442008/

The American Geriatrics Society. (2019). American geriatrics society 2019 updated AGS beers criteria for potentially inappropriately medication use in older adults. The American Geriatrics Society67(4), 674-694. https://agingresources.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/2019-BEERS-critieria-update.pdf

Topic 2 DQ 2

Mar 10-14, 2022

Many people are using herbal medications and dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of medical problems. Review two current research articles about two of these products. Based on the findings, what would be the implications for you as a nurse? What additional research needs to be done in this area? Cite the two references to support your answer. Make sure that you select different herbal medications and dietary supplements than your peers. Include the name of the herbal medication and dietary supplement in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

CA

Cristina Alimon

Posted Date

Mar 14, 2022, 9:25 PM

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Replies to Cristina Alimon

Vitamin D

Vitamin D insufficiency is a serious public health concern globally, affecting people of all ages, even those who live in regions with year-round sun exposure. Vitamin D is necessary for bone health and has been associated with immunomodulation and cell proliferation. Vitamin D exists in two forms. Vitamin D2, also known as ergocalciferol, is produced by plants and fungus, whereas vitamin D3, also known as cholecalciferol, is produced by mammals (Ramasamy, 2020). Therefore, we must consider how vitamin D is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted and how it is taken in and how it is excreted.

Additionally, patient-specific variables may vary the quantity of vitamin D necessary to achieve an adequate concentration. Therefore, it is critical to demonstrate which factors influence individuals’ reactions to vitamin D supplementation (Ramasamy, 2020). A factor to consider can affect how an individual metabolizes different forms of Vitamin D; poisoning manifests clinically as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. Symptoms include lethargy and disorientation, stupor, and coma; gastrointestinal symptoms such as anorexia, vomiting, and constipation; and cardiovascular symptoms such as polyuria and renal colic caused by the passage of renal stones (Ramasamy, 2020). As nurses, we need to remind the patient that even though Vitamin D is common as a supplement, it is also essential to understand that monitoring the level is vital to avoid hypertoxicity. More research is needed on the determinants of vitamin D intake and adequacy in specific patient groups, including those on co-prescribed medicines that alter vitamin D metabolism, those with malabsorption, and those who have had gastric bypass surgery.

inger-Nausea

Ginger has been revered for its medicinal benefits for over 2500 years. Ginger has diverse phytochemistry and health benefits. One of the most extensively used ginger species, Zingiber Officinalis, is present in many meals and beverages (Najim, 2017). Ginger is widely used to alleviate diarrhea, nausea, and stomach distress; it also has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. There are also studies that ginger improves blood flow in the body by stimulating the heart muscle and diluting the blood that circulates through the body ant these speeds up cell metabolism and relieve cramps and tension. Although further research is needed, it has been shown that 5 g of ginger possesses anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties due to enhanced fibrinolytic activity (Najim, 2017). Because of this effect, as nurses, we must educate patients before taking any herbal supplements or medicines. They need to check if they will have an adverse reaction to any other medication. For example, if the patient is taking a blood thinner, it can potentiate its effect and cause bleeding. This scientific review thinks ginger is good because it has many phytochemicals. However, there are some questions about ginger’s effectiveness, so it is best to do clinical trials with a suitable protocol before saying it works (Najim, 2017).

References

Najim, A. J. (2017). Potential health benefits and scientific review of ginger. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy9(7), 111-116. https://doi.org/10.5897/jpp2017.0459

Ramasamy, I. (2020). Vitamin D metabolism and guidelines for vitamin D supplementation. Clinical Biochemist Reviews41(3), 103-126. https://doi.org/10.33176/aacb-20-00006

REPLY

  • LH

NUR 641E Discussions And Assignment Papers Topic 3: Fluid, Electrolyte, And Acid-Base Pathophysiology

Mar 17-23, 2022

Max Points:197

Objectives:

  1. Describe normal pathophysiology and alterations in electrolytes and their presentations.
  2. Differentiate between acid-base imbalances: metabolic acidosis or alkalosis and respiratory acidosis or alkalosis.
  3. Compare the role of the respiratory and renal systems in regulating acid-base balance.
  4. Describe a pharmacological intervention using an evidence-based treatment guideline.

Topic 3 DQ 1

Mar 17-19, 2022

Choose a medical condition from the fluid, electrolyte, or acid-base system and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Make sure that you select a different medical condition than your peers. Include the name of the medical condition in the subject line so that the medical conditions can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

NS

Nicole Santos

Posted Date

Mar 21, 2022, 8:06 PM

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Replies to Nicole Santos

Hypercalcemia is a condition where calcium level in the blood are elevated. Elevated calcium level in the blood can weaken the bones, form kidney stones, and affect the cardiac and brain function. Overactive parathyroid glands are typically the cause of hypercalcemia, other causes are cancer, other medical issues and medications, and taking too much calcium and vitamin D supplements.

Hypercalcemia can affect the following:

  • Kidneys: makes kidney work harder causing excessive thirst and frequent urination
  • GI system: stomach disturbances, nausea, vomiting, constipation
  • Bones and Muscles: weak and brittle bones, bone pain, muscle weakness
  • Brain: confusion, lethargy, fatigue, depression
  • Heart: palpitations, fainting, arrhythmia

Some patient education in patients would be to inform of signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia; inform for risk of kidney stones; drink plenty of water; avoid food high in dairy or calcium; discontinue calcium supplements; refrain from using antacids with calcium and opt for antacids with magnesium.

References

McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2018). Pathophysiology – e-book: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). Mosby. https://bibliu.com/app/#/view/books/9780323413206/epub/OPS/xhtml/chp00007.html

Topic 3 DQ 2

Mar 17-21, 2022

Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

VB

Vanessa Brown

Posted Date

Mar 22, 2022, 9:36 PM

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Replies to Vanessa Brown

Magnesium sulfate

Magnesium sulfate is an evidence-based treatment used to treat hypomagnesemia. Depending on the severity of the hypomagnesemia and the stability of the patient, the administration can be oral, intravenous, intraosseous (if no other route is possible), or intramuscular. It can be combined with dextrose 5% or water to make intravenous solutions (Hicks & Tyagi, 2022). If given orally, it causes an osmotic shift in fluid; if given parenterally it will be broken down to elemental magnesium, and be used to replete and maintain circulating magnesium stores (Hicks & Tyagi, 2022). An increase in the serum concentration of magnesium occurs.When repleting magnesium in patients with abnormal kidney function, it is recommended that doses be reduced to prevent hypermagnesemia. After magnesium sulfate is administered parenterally, monitoring of the serum levels should be drawn every 6-8 hours (Hicks & Tyagi, 2022). Clinical assessment of patellar reflexes, urinary output, and possible signs and symptoms of hypermagnesemia should be monitored, too. Some of the common side effects of giving this parenterally within the therapeutic range are facial flushing and warmth (Hicks & Tyagi, 2022). If it is given parenterally and too quickly or in high doses, it can lead to hypotension absent reflexes, weakness, decreased respiratory drive, and abnormal cardiac conduction (Hicks & Tyagi, 2022). If a therapeutic dose is taken orally, nausea and loose stools can result. Several drug interactions may occur but vary greatly in severity. Some of the drugs to speak to your doctor about before taking magnesium are aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as amikacin and gentamicin, because if taken together respiratory depression may result (Magnesium sulfate interactions, n.d.). Taking medications that help with increasing calcium levels, such as calcium or Vitamin D medications, could increase the risk for hypermagnesemia (Magnesium sulfate interactions, n.d.).

References

Hicks, M., & Tyagi, A. (2022). Magnesium Sulfate. NCBIhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554553/

Magnesium sulfate interactions. (n.d.). Drugs.com. https://www.drugs.com/drug-interactions/magnesium-sulfate.html

Topic 4: Respiratory System And HEENT: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

Mar 24-30, 2022

Max Points:30

Objectives:

  1. Describe normal pathophysiology and alterations in the pulmonary system and HEENT.
  2. Integrate knowledge of pathophysiology and pharmacology into teaching and educational materials in diverse settings.
  3. Describe a pharmacological intervention using an evidence-based treatment guideline.

Topic 4 DQ 1

Mar 24-26, 2022

Choose a medical condition from the respiratory system or HEENT system and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Make sure that you select a different medical condition than your peers. Include the name of the medical condition in the subject line so that the medical condition can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

VB

Vanessa Brown

Posted Date

Mar 27, 2022, 4:49 PM(edited)

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Replies to Vanessa Brown

Acute otitis media

Acute otitis media is an infection of the middle ear that can affect both children and adults, and can have symptoms of ear pain, fever, irritability, inflamed tympanic membrane, and fluid in the middle ear (McCance & Huether, 2018). It is the most common infection in infants and children, and is also the leading reason for healthcare visits and prescriptions in the world (McCance & Huether, 2018). Acute otitis media is mostly caused by bacterial pathogens, but respiratory viruses and certain predisposing factors can also lead to acute otitis media. The pathophysiology changes that can be seen include erythema to the tympanic membrane that progresses to opaqueness, and is accompanied by membrane bulging caused by accumulating fluid (McCance & Huether, 2018).

Patient education that should be provided would be to seek medical attention for a definitive diagnosis and follow-up because treatment could include antimicrobial therapy, especially in children under the age of two (McCance & Huether, 2018). The other symptoms of pain and fever should be medicated accordingly for the patient’s comfort, as per physician order. Breastfeeding is a protective factor, and the widespread use of bacterial and viral vaccines in young children has accompanied a reduction of incidence of otitis media (McCance & Huether, 2018). Ongoing infections with certain types could possibly lead to conductive hearing loss (where there is interference in air conduction), eardrum perforation, or spread of infection (McCance & Huether, 2018). Placement of tympanostomy tubes in the ears would be a way to prevent permanent damage if the infections are reoccurring. This is why prevention of otitis media is key. Some additional things to help prevent acute otitis media would be to avoid cigarette smoke, control allergies, prevent colds, and bottle feed babies at an upright angle.

References

McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2018). Pathophysiology – e-book: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). Mosby. https://bibliu.com/app/#/view/books/9780323413206/epub/OPS/xhtml/chp00007.html

Topic 4 DQ 2

Mar 24-28, 2022

Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

NS

Nicole Santos

Posted Date

Mar 29, 2022, 8:42 PM

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Replies to Nicole Santos

AUGMENTIN

Augmentin is a combination antibiotic that contains both amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Amoxicillin is a penicillin antibiotic that helps fight bacteria in the body by binding to proteins in the bacterial cell wall and inhibits the cell wall from synthesis , and clavulanate is a beta-lactamase inhibitor that helps prevent bacteria from becoming resistant to amoxicillin by being structurally related to penicillin, deactivating the potential of beta-lactamase enzymes.

Some common side effects of augmentin include nausea vomiting, diarrhea, rash, itching, vaginal itching or discharge, or diaper rash. It is recommended to notify your physician if you have severe stomach pain, watery or bloody diarrhea, loss of appetite, little to no urination, or easy bruising or bleeding.

Augmentin is contraindicated in patients with severe kidney disease, allergy to penicillin or cephalosporin antibiotics, breast feeding, or taking birth control. It is also advised to voice taking augmentin with a high-fat meal, as it makes it difficult for the body to absorb medications.

References

Evans J, Hannoodee M, Wittler M. Amoxicillin Clavulanate. [Updated 2021 Dec 15]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538164/

Topic 5: Cardiovascular System And Lymphatic System: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

Mar 31-Apr 6, 2022

Max Points:130

Objectives:

  1. Describe normal pathophysiology and alterations in the cardiovascular system and lymphatic system.
  2. Integrate knowledge of pathophysiology and pharmacology into teaching and educational materials in diverse settings.
  3. Describe a pharmacological intervention using an evidence-based treatment guideline.

Topic 5 DQ 1

Mar 31-Apr 2, 2022

Choose a medical condition from the cardiovascular system and lymphatic system and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Make sure that you select a different medical condition than your peers. Include the name of the medical condition in the subject line so that the medical condition can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

NS

Nicole Santos

Posted Date

Apr 4, 2022, 12:44 PM

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ORTHOSTATIC (POSTURAL) HYPOTENSION

Orthostatic hypotension, or postural hypotension, refers to a decrease of 20 mmHg in systolic blood pressure, and a decrease of 10 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure within a period of 3 minutes when moving from a supine, to sitting, to standing position. Primary orthostatic hypotension is typically called neurogenic hypotension, which is a result of a neurologic disorder that affects the autonomic system. This increases sympathetic activity through baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch which prompts the increase in heart rate and constriction of systemic arteries that maintain stable blood pressure, which is not the case in individuals with orthostatic hypotension.

This disease is more common in older adults due to the slowing of postural reflexes as part of normal aging and other neurologic diseases like Parkinson and multiple system atrophy. Some patient education related to this order would be to change positions slowly to reduce light headedness and falls, drinking plenty of water, avoid crossing legs while sitting, and elevating the head of the bed.

Reference

McCance, K. L., Huether, S. E., Brashers, V. L., Rote, N. S., & McCance, K. L. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children

REPLY

  • LH

Topic 5 DQ 2

Mar 31-Apr 4, 2022

Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

VB

Vanessa Brown

Posted Date

Apr 5, 2022, 10:25 PM(edited)

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Replies to Vanessa Brown

Ketoprofen

Traditionally, lymphedema would be treated with compression garments, lymphatic massage, or surgical procedures. The treatment for lymphedema has not really included medication therapy, but there have been trials that have shown promising results with the NSAID ketoprofen (Rockson et al., 2018). The mechanism of action for ketoprofen is that of dual inflammatory inhibition pathways that blocks both cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-LO (Rockson et al., 2018). The inhibition of 5-LO then negatively effects leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production. The intended results from the use of ketoprofen was to reduce swelling,relieve pain, and improve the skin thickening that accompanies lymphedema. When taking this medication, monitoring of blood work will be needed with extended use to evaluate for toxicity, especially in high-risk patients (Drugs.com, n.d.). Monitoring for other dangerous adverse effects from ketoprofen should also be done. These include severe allergic reaction, possible heart attack or stroke, or gastrointestinal bleeding (Drugs.com, n.d.). Some of the common side effects of this NSAID are heartburn, gas, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and dizziness (Drugs.com, n.d.). Some possible drug interactions are easier bruising and bleeding with certain antidepressants, increased effect of anticoagulants, and GI issues with steroid medications (Drugs.com, n.d.).

References

Drugs.com. (n.d.). Ketoprofenhttps://www.drugs.com/mtm/ketoprofen.html

Rockson, S. G., Tian, W., Jiang, X., Kuznetsova, T., Haddad, F., Zampell, J., Mehrara, B., Sampson, J. P., Roche, L., Kim, J., & Nicolls, M. R. (2018). Pilot studies demonstrate the potential benefits of anti-inflammatory therapy in human lymphedema. JCI Insight3(20). https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.123775

REPLY

  • LH

NUR 641E Discussions And Assignment Papers Topic 6: Gastrointestinal And Genitourinary Systems: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

Apr 7-13, 2022

Max Points:206

Objectives:

  1. Describe normal pathophysiology and alterations of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems.
  2. Integrate knowledge of pathophysiology and pharmacology into teaching and educational materials in diverse settings.
  3. Describe a pharmacological intervention using an evidence-based treatment guideline.

Topic 6 DQ 1

Apr 7-9, 2022

Choose a medical condition from the gastrointestinal or genitourinary systems and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Make sure that you select a different medical condition than your peers. Include the name of the medical condition in the subject line so that the medical condition can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

VB

Vanessa Brown

Posted Date

Apr 10, 2022, 10:16 PM(edited)

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Replies to Vanessa Brown

Diverticulitis

Diverticulitis is the inflammation or infection of diverticula that are most commonly found in the lower part of the large intestine (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). Diverticula are small pouches that can form within the areas of weakened lining of the digestive tract, most commonly in the colon (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). Diverticulitis occurs when there is a tear in a diverticula, and the inflammation or infection cause severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and a change in bowel habits (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). The treatments can include bowel rest, lifestyle changes (including diet), and antibiotics. In some extreme and/or recurring cases of diverticulitis, surgery is necessary. Some of the risk factors for developing diverticulitis are age, lack of exercise, obesity, smoking, diet high in fat and low in fiber, and certain medications (NSAIDs, steroids, opioids).

References

Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Diverticulitis. Mayoclinic.org. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diverticulitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20371758

REPLY

  • LH

Topic 6 DQ 2

Apr 7-11, 2022

Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

VB

Vanessa Brown

Posted Date

Apr 11, 2022, 11:13 PM

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Replies to Vanessa Brown

Metronidazole

Metronidazole (Flagyl) is a part of the antibiotic treatment that can be used with treating diverticulitis. It can be given orally or intravenously for this purpose. The mechanism of action of metronidazole is that it “diffuses into the organism, inhibits protein synthesis by interacting with DNA and causing a loss of helical DNA structure and strand breakage. Therefore, it causes cell death in susceptible organisms” (Weir & Le, 2021). While a patient is taking this medication for an extended period of time, labs such as a CBC w/differential should be monitored for changes (especially elderly or those with renal/hepatic issues), observe for new onset of neurological symptoms, severe or bloody diarrhea (possible C. Diff infection), and monitor for other possible adverse effects (Weir & Le, 2021). Some side effects that may occur are nausea, vomiting, metallic taste in the mouth, dry mouth, diarrhea, or headache. Some drug interactions that need to be discussed are the use of alcohol or alcohol containing medications, lithium, glucocorticoids, and warfarin. The alcohol will cause a serious disulfiram-like reaction, lithium excretion by the kidneys would be compromised, oxidative metabolism of the metronidazole is caused by the glucocorticoids, and the metabolism of warfarin is inhibited with metronidazole (Weir & Le, 2021).

References

Weir, C., & Le, J. (2021). Metronidazole. NCBIhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539728/

Topic 7 DQ 1

Apr 14-16, 2022

Choose a medical condition from the neurological, musculoskeletal, or integumentary system and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Make sure that you select a different medical condition than your peers. Include the name of the medical condition in the subject line so that the medical condition can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

NS

Nicole Santos

Posted Date

Apr 18, 2022, 9:26 PM

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Replies to Nicole Santos

Alopecia Areata

Alopecia areata is an autoimmune condition where the body attacks its hair follicles, causing hair loss anywhere on the body. The hair loss typically occurs in circular patches that may overlap. It is important to educate the patient on the root cause of their diagnosis and their treatment options available to them. It is also important to educate proper diet of 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight and discontinuing medications that may affect hair growth. You can also offer support and counseling to help with coping with hair loss. Suggesting various styling techniques and hair colors can also help in reducing the appearance of thinning hair volume and assist with coping.

References

Hair loss types: Alopecia areata overview. American Academy of Dermatology. (2022). Retrieved April 18, 2022, from https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/hair-loss/types/alopecia

Mims. (n.d.). Alopecia patient education. MIMS Malaysia. Retrieved April 18, 2022, from https://specialty.mims.com/alopecia/patient%20education

REPLY

  • LH

Topic 7 DQ 2

Apr 14-18, 2022

Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

NS

Nicole Santos

Posted Date

Apr 18, 2022, 9:47 PM

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Replies to Nicole Santos

Minoxidil

Minoxidil, or more commonly known as Rogaine, is a well known treatment for alopecia areata. Minoxidil helps increase blood supply and nutrients to the hair follicles, helping to strengthen existing hair follicles and promoting hair growth. Some common side effects of minoxidil are irritation, eczema, abnormal hair growth on the body, redness at application site, burning, worsening hair loss. It is cautioned that one minoxidil is used, it should be used indefinitely, with apparent hair growth within a minimum of four months; avoid contact with scalp once it is applied as it can easily be rubbed off; may experience change in hair color; avoid in patients with heart issues; avoid contact with eyes.

Reference

Goren, A., Naccarato, T., Situm, M., Kovacevic, M., Lotti, T., & McCoy, J. (2017). Mechanism of action of minoxidil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia is likely mediated by mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase-induced stem cell differentiation. Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents31(4), 1049–1053.

Cristina Alimon

Posted Date

Apr 18, 2022, 9:16 PM

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Replies to Nicole Santos

Levodopa (L-Dopa)

Levodopa is a dopamine precursor; it is beneficial for controlling bradykinetic symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and improving the quality of life in people with idiopathic PD (Gandhi KR, 2021). Levodopa may halt the course of Parkinson’s disease or provide further advantages long after the medicine is stopped.

Mechanism of Action

Levodopa is converted to dopamine in both the CNS and the periphery. Inhibitors of dopamine decarboxylase prevent Levodopa from being converted to dopamine in the periphery, allowing more Levodopa to penetrate the Blood-Brain Barrier (Gandhi KR, 2021). Once converted to dopamine, it acts on postsynaptic dopaminergic receptors, compensating for the loss of endogenous dopamine.

Hints for monitoring

Individuals using Levodopa must regularly monitor their BUN, creatinine, and hepatic function (Gandhi KR, 2021). A healthy liver is critical for people on Levodopa since it is the site of decarboxylation. When a person has glaucoma, it is also essential to check their intraocular pressure to ensure it is safe. Before and while taking Levodopa, it is also vital to check for peripheral neuropathy to see if it will worsen. Patients should also have their dyskinesia checked regularly. Therefore, it is crucial to watch patients who take dopaminergic medications for psychotic behavior and hallucinations. Hallucinations can happen when people are confused or have many dreams.

Side effects

Taking Levodopa’s most common side effects are nausea, dizziness, headache, and sleepiness. Typical side effects for older people who take Levodopa are confusion, hallucinations, delusions, psychosis, and agitation.

Drug interactions

Levodopa is contraindicated when monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are used concurrently, as this might result in a hypertensive crisis (Gandhi KR, 2021). However, when transitioning from Levodopa to an MAOI or vice versa, a 14-day washout period should be observed. Patients using D2 antagonists may decrease the effects of Levodopa, which may lessen the drug’s positive benefits (Gandhi KR, 2021).

Reference:

Gandhi KR, S. A. (2021, April 30). Levodopa (L-dopa) – StatPearls – NCBI bookshelf. National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482140/

Topic 8 DQ 1

Apr 21-23, 2022

Choose a medical condition from the endocrine system and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Make sure that you select a different medical condition than your peers. Include the name of the medical condition in the subject line so that the medical condition can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

NS

Nicole Santos

Posted Date

Apr 25, 2022, 3:26 PM

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Replies to Nicole Santos

GOITER

Goiter is an abnormal growth of the thyroid gland located at the base of the neck. This may present as an enlargement of the thyroid or irregular cell growth that may cause lumps or nodules in the thyroid. Goiter may be a result of change in thyroid hormones or no change at all. Some common causes of goiter is lack of iodine intake from an inidivuduals diet.  Depending on the cause of goiter, an individual may exhibit symptoms of hyperthyroidsim or hyperthyroidism. In obstructive goiter, signs and symptoms include difficulties swallowing, labored breathing, hoarseness, cough, and snoring. Treatment of goiter varies on the cause, treating the symptoms and complications. It is important to educate patients with goiter on the cause of their goiter; adequate iodine intake; annual physical exams and neck exams; annual blood work. For patients on medical treatment for goiter, it is important to reinforce the importance of taking prescribed medications as ordered.

Reference

Can AS, Rehman A. Goiter. [Updated 2021 Aug 30]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK562161/

Topic 8 DQ 2

Apr 21-25, 2022

Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

CA

Cristina Alimon

Posted Date

Apr 25, 2022, 7:18 PM

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Replies to Cristina Alimon

Propylthiouracil (PTU)

Propylthiouracil is used to treat hyperthyroidism (abnormal thyroid activity), Graves’ disease, and toxic goiter (enlarged thyroid). It is also occasionally used to relieve symptoms prior to thyroid surgery or radioactive iodine therapy.

Mechanism of action

Propylthiouracil suppresses thyroid hormone synthesis. It works by blocking thyroid peroxidase, which normally converts iodide to iodine and integrates it into tyrosine (Amisha & Rehman, 2021). The primary components of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) are not formed (T3). It inhibits T4 to T3 conversion peripherally. It affects thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland or in the blood.

Hints of monitoring

Thyroid function tests should be monitored while on PTU treatment. Patients using warfarin must also have their prothrombin time monitored. PTU treatment includes patient education and counseling. The patient should be advised: Notify your doctor if you become pregnant or plan to become pregnant while taking the medicine. Report any fever, drug eruptions, or infection to your doctor. Notify your doctor if you have nausea, right upper quadrant discomfort, or jaundice. Agranulocytosis symptoms include sore throat, fever, chills, gum or skin infections (Amisha & Rehman, 2021). Severe hypotension is another symptom.

Side effects

Symptoms of an allergic response (hives, difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat) (fever, sore throat, burning eyes, skin pain, red or purple skin rash with blistering and peeling). Propylthiouracil harms the liver (especially during the first 6 months of treatment). If you suffer nausea, vomiting, upper stomach discomfort, itching, fever, fatigue, lack of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored feces, or jaundice, stop taking propylthiouracil and notify your doctor (yellowing of the skin or eyes).

Drug Interactions

Digoxin (digitalis); theophylline; heart or blood pressure medicine; or a blood thinner—warfarin, Coumadin, Jantoven—all have drug interactions with Propylthiouracil.

References

Amisha, F., & Rehman, A. (2021, July 11). Propylthiouracil (PTU) – StatPearls – NCBI bookshelf. National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK549828/

Cerner Multum. (2021, June 11). Propylthiouracil. Drugs.com. https://www.drugs.com/mtm/propylthiouracil.html

Topic 2 Content Lesson Presentation

REVIEW ASSIGNMENT

Start Date

Mar 10, 2022, 12:00 AM

Due Date

Mar 16, 2022, 11:59 PM

Points

167

Rubric

View Rubric

Status

Published

Assessment Description

Create an 8-9 slide presentation with speaker notes about a selected disease process and drug class. The presentation should provide content specific information on the selected disease process and drug class for staff or learners in a clinical environment.

Follow these steps:

  1. Select a disease process and a drug class used to treat the disease process.
  2. Describe pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug related to the pathophysiology of the disease process.
  3. Describe the product, its intended use, side effects, adverse reactions, and safety issues.
  4. Identify ethnic, cultural, and genetic differences in patients that may affect the safety or efficacy of medications.
  5. How would you monitor the desired effect is achieved?

Be sure to include three to five references.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are not required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite.

Content Lesson Presentation – Rubric

Collapse All Content Lesson Presentation – RubricCollapse All

Disease Process and Drug Class

25.05 points

Criteria Description

Disease Process and Drug Class

  1. Excellent

25.05 points

A disease process and drug class used to treat the disease process is present.

  1. Good

23.05 points

A disease process and drug class used to treat the disease process is presented.

  1. Satisfactory

22.04 points

A disease process and drug class used to treat the disease process is adequately presented.

  1. Less than Satisfactory

20.04 points

A disease process and drug class used to treat the disease process is present, but incomplete or inaccurate.

  1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

A disease process and drug class used to treat the disease process is not present.

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

25.05 points

Criteria Description

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

  1. Excellent

25.05 points

A description of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug related to the pathophysiology of the disease process is presented in a thoughtful and insightful manner. Supporting material is of exceptional quality and quantity.

  1. Good

23.05 points

A description of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug related to the pathophysiology of the disease process is adequately presented. Supporting material is of above average quality and quantity.

  1. Satisfactory

22.04 points

A description of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug related to the pathophysiology of the disease process is adequately presented. Supporting material is of baseline acceptable quality and quantity.

  1. Less than Satisfactory

20.04 points

A description of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug related to the pathophysiology of the disease process is present, but incomplete or inaccurate.

  1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

A description of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug related to the pathophysiology of the disease process is not present.

Product

25.05 points

Criteria Description

Product

  1. Excellent

25.05 points

A description of the product, intended use, side effects, adverse reactions, and safety issues is presented in a thoughtful and insightful manner. Supporting material is of exceptional quality and quantity.

  1. Good

23.05 points

A description of the product, intended use, side effects, adverse reactions, and safety issues is adequately presented. Supporting material is of above average quality and quantity.

  1. Satisfactory

22.04 points

A description of the product, intended use, side effects, adverse reactions, and safety issues is adequately presented. Supporting material is of baseline acceptable quality and quantity.

  1. Less than Satisfactory

20.04 points

A description of the product, intended use, side effects, adverse reactions, and safety issues is present, but incomplete or inaccurate.

  1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

A description of the product, intended use, side effects, adverse reactions, and safety issues is not present.

Ethnic, Cultural, and Genetic Differences

25.05 points

Criteria Description

Ethnic, Cultural, and Genetic Differences

  1. Excellent

25.05 points

A description of ethnic, cultural and genetic differences in patients that may affect the safety or efficacy of medications is presented in a thoughtful and insightful manner. Supporting material is of exceptional quality and quantity.

  1. Good

23.05 points

A description of ethnic, cultural and genetic differences in patients that may affect the safety or efficacy of medications is adequately presented. Supporting material is of above average quality and quantity.

  1. Satisfactory

22.04 points

A description of ethnic, cultural and genetic differences in patients that may affect the safety or efficacy of medications is adequately presented. Supporting material is of baseline acceptable quality and quantity.

  1. Less than Satisfactory

20.04 points

A description of ethnic, cultural and genetic differences in patients that may affect the safety or efficacy of medications is present, but incomplete or inaccurate.

  1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

A description of ethnic, cultural and genetic differences in patients that may affect the safety or efficacy of medications is not present.

Monitor

25.05 points

Criteria Description

Monitor

  1. Excellent

25.05 points

A description of how you would monitor the desired affect is presented in a thoughtful and insightful manner. Supporting material is of exceptional quality and quantity.

  1. Good

23.05 points

A description of how you would monitor the desired affect is adequately presented. Supporting material is of above average quality and quantity.

  1. Satisfactory

22.04 points

A description of how you would monitor the desired affect is of baseline acceptable quality and quantity.

  1. Less than Satisfactory

20.04 points

A description of how you would monitor the desired affect is present, but incomplete or inaccurate.

  1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

A description of how you would monitor the desired affect is achieved is not present.

Presentation of Content

8.35 points

Criteria Description

Presentation of Content

  1. Excellent

8.35 points

The content is written clearly and concisely. Ideas universally progress and relate to each other. The project includes motivating questions and advanced organizers. The project gives the audience a clear sense of the main idea.

  1. Good

7.68 points

The content is written with a logical progression of ideas and supporting information exhibiting a unity, coherence, and cohesiveness. Includes persuasive information from reliable sources.

  1. Satisfactory

7.35 points

The presentation slides are generally competent, but ideas may show some inconsistency in organization or in their relationships to each other.

  1. Less than Satisfactory

6.68 points

The content is vague in conveying a point of view and does not create a strong sense of purpose. Includes some persuasive information.

  1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

The content lacks a clear point of view and logical sequence of information. Includes little persuasive information. Sequencing of ideas is unclear.

Layout

8.35 points

Criteria Description

Layout

  1. Excellent

8.35 points

The layout is visually pleasing and contributes to the overall message with appropriate use of headings, subheadings, and white space. Text is appropriate in length for the target audience and to the point. The background and colors enhance the readability of the text.

  1. Good

7.68 points

The layout background and text complement each other and enable the content to be easily read. The fonts are easy to read and point size varies appropriately for headings and text.

  1. Satisfactory

7.35 points

The layout uses horizontal and vertical white space appropriately. Sometimes the fonts are easy to read, but in a few places the use of fonts, italics, bold, long paragraphs, color, or busy background detracts and does not enhance readability.

  1. Less than Satisfactory

6.68 points

The layout shows some structure, but appears cluttered and busy or distracting with large gaps of white space or a distracting background. Overall readability is difficult due to lengthy paragraphs, too many different fonts, dark or busy background, overuse of bold, or lack of appropriate indentations of text.

  1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

The layout is cluttered, confusing, and does not use spacing, headings, and subheadings to enhance the readability. The text is extremely difficult to read with long blocks of text, small point size for fonts, and inappropriate contrasting colors. Poor use of headings, subheadings, indentations, or bold formatting is evident.

Language Use and Audience Awareness (includes sentence construction, word choice, etc.)

8.35 points

Criteria Description

Language Use and Audience Awareness (includes sentence construction, word choice, etc.)

  1. Excellent

8.35 points

The writer uses a variety of sentence constructions, figures of speech, and word choice in distinctive and creative ways that are appropriate to purpose, discipline, and scope.

  1. Good

7.68 points

The writer is clearly aware of audience, uses a variety of appropriate vocabulary for the targeted audience, and uses figures of speech to communicate clearly.

  1. Satisfactory

7.35 points

Language is appropriate to the targeted audience for the most part.

  1. Less than Satisfactory

6.68 points

Some distracting inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. The writer exhibits some lack of control in using figures of speech appropriately.

  1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Inappropriate word choice and lack of variety in language use are evident. Writer appears to be unaware of audience. Use of primer prose indicates writer either does not apply figures of speech or uses them inappropriately.

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

8.35 points

Criteria Description

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

  1. Excellent

8.35 points

Writer is clearly in control of standard, written, academic English.

  1. Good

7.68 points

Slides are largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present.

ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED, PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPERS

  1. Satisfactory

7.35 points

Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader.

  1. Less than Satisfactory

6.68 points

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader.

  1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Slide errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning.

Documentation of Sources

8.35 points

Criteria Description

Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)

  1. Excellent

8.35 points

Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

  1. Good

7.68 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.

  1. Satisfactory

7.35 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.

  1. Less than Satisfactory

6.68 points

Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.

  1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Sources are not documented.

Total 167 points

Topic 3 Acid-Base and Electrolyte Case Study

REVIEW ASSIGNMENT

Start Date

Mar 17, 2022, 12:00 AM

Due Date

Mar 23, 2022, 11:59 PM

Points

167

Rubric

View Rubric

Status

Published

Assessment Description

A nurse is taking care of an 85-year-old woman in a hospital-based skilled nursing facility. In the report, the nurse is told the patient has not been breathing well for the past 2 days. She has been lethargic, her skin is warm and dry, and she has a decreased urine output. The following laboratory findings were returned from the laboratory immediately after morning report:

Blood Chemistries

  • Na: 147
  • Cl: 110
  • K: 4.0

Arterial Blood Gases

  • pH: 7.33
  • PCO2: 48
  • HCO3: 27
  • PO2: 96

Urinalysis

  • Urine Specific Gravity: 1.040

Address the following:

  1. Identify each of the abnormal laboratory findings in the above results. Specify how they differ from a normal range and identify what condition each abnormality indicates.
  2. What specific electrolyte disturbance does the patient have?
  3. What clinical manifestations would the nurse expect to see with this electrolyte abnormality presented above?
  4. If the patient had an increase in her potassium level, for what clinical manifestations would the nurse monitor?
  5. What blood gas abnormality is seen in this patient? Discuss the rationale for your answer.
  6. What are the three major mechanisms of pH regulation?

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are not required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite.

Acid-Base and Electrolyte Case Study – Rubric

Collapse All Acid-Base And Electrolyte Case Study – RubricCollapse All

Identification of Abnormalities

25.05 points

Criteria Description

Identification of Abnormalities

  1. 5: Excellent 93-100%

25.05 points

Identification of the abnormal laboratory findings is accurate, supplemented by a detailed and thorough identification of the conditions each abnormality indicates.

  1. 4: Good 89-92%

23.05 points

Identification of the abnormal laboratory findings and their respective conditions is accurate.

  1. 3: Satisfactory 81-88%

22.04 points

Identification of the abnormal laboratory findings and their respective conditions is mostly correct but is missing key specifics.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory 76-80%

20.04 points

Identification of the abnormal laboratory findings and their respective conditions is incorrect and/or incomplete. NUR 641E Discussions And Assignment Papers

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory 0-75%

0 points

Identification of the abnormal laboratory findings and their respective conditions is not included.

Identification of Electrolyte Disturbance

25.05 points

Criteria Description

Identification of Electrolyte Disturbance

  1. 5: Excellent 93-100%

25.05 points

Identification of the electrolyte disturbance is correct.

  1. 4: Good 89-92%

23.05 points

N/A

  1. 3: Satisfactory 81-88%

22.04 points

N/A

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory 76-80%

20.04 points

Identification of the electrolyte disturbance is incorrect.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory 0-75%

0 points

Identification of the electrolyte disturbance is not included.

Electrolyte Abnormality Clinical Manifestations

25.05 points

Criteria Description

Electrolyte Abnormality Clinical Manifestations

  1. 5: Excellent 93-100%

25.05 points

Identification of electrolyte abnormality clinical manifestations is accurate, supported by thorough and detailed insight.

  1. 4: Good 89-92%

23.05 points

Identification of electrolyte abnormality clinical manifestations is accurate.

  1. 3: Satisfactory 81-88%

22.04 points

Identification of electrolyte abnormality clinical manifestations is mostly correct but is missing key symptoms.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory 76-80%

20.04 points

Identification of electrolyte abnormality clinical manifestations is incorrect and/or incomplete.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory 0-75%

0 points

Identification of electrolyte abnormality clinical manifestations is not included.

Increased Potassium Clinical Manifestations

25.05 points

Criteria Description

Increased Potassium Clinical Manifestations

  1. 5: Excellent 93-100%

25.05 points

Identification of increased potassium level clinical manifestations is accurate, supported by detailed and thorough insight.

  1. 4: Good 89-92%

23.05 points

Identification of increased potassium level clinical manifestations is accurate.

  1. 3: Satisfactory 81-88%

22.04 points

Identification of increased potassium level clinical manifestations is mostly correct but is missing key symptoms.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory 76-80%

20.04 points

Identification of increased potassium level clinical manifestations is incorrect and/or incomplete.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory 0-75%

0 points

Identification of increased potassium level clinical manifestations is not included.

Blood Gas Abnormality

25.05 points

Criteria Description

Blood Gas Abnormality

  1. 5: Excellent 93-100%

25.05 points

Assessment of blood gas abnormality is accurate, supported by a detailed and thorough discussion of the patient’s condition.

  1. 4: Good 89-92%

23.05 points

Assessment of blood gas abnormality is accurate.

  1. 3: Satisfactory 81-88%

22.04 points

Assessment of blood gas abnormality is mostly correct but is missing key specifics.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory 76-80%

20.04 points

Assessment of blood gas abnormality is incorrect and/or incomplete.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory 0-75%

0 points

Assessment of blood gas abnormality is not included.

Mechanisms of pH Regulation

25.05 points

Criteria Description

Mechanisms of pH Regulation

  1. 5: Excellent 93-100%

25.05 points

The three major mechanisms of pH regulation are accurately identified, and the properties of each mechanism are briefly described.

  1. 4: Good 89-92%

23.05 points

The three major mechanisms of pH regulation are accurately identified.

  1. 3: Satisfactory 81-88%

22.04 points

The three major mechanisms of pH regulation are mostly correct.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory 76-80%

20.04 points

The three major mechanisms of pH regulation are incorrect and/or incomplete.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory 0-75%

0 points

The three major mechanisms of pH regulation are not addressed.

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, and language use)

8.35 points

Criteria Description

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, and language use)

  1. 5: Excellent 93-100%

8.35 points

The writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

  1. 4: Good 89-92%

7.68 points

Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. The writer uses a variety of effective sentence structures and figures of speech.

  1. 3: Satisfactory 81-88%

7.35 points

Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct and varied sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are employed.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory 76-80%

6.68 points

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. Sentence structure is correct but not varied.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory 0-75%

0 points

Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is employed.

Documentation of Sources

8.35 points

Criteria Description

Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)

  1. 5: Excellent 93-100%

8.35 points

Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

  1. 4: Good 89-92%

7.68 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.

  1. 3: Satisfactory 81-88%

7.35 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory 76-80%

6.68 points

Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory 0-75%

0 points

Sources are not documented.

Total 167 points

Topic 6 CLC – Staff Training

GO TO GROUP

Start Date

Apr 7, 2022, 12:00 AM

Due Date

Apr 13, 2022, 11:59 PM

Points

176

Rubric

View Rubric

Status

Published

Assessment Traits

Group

Requires Lopeswrite

Assessment Description

This is a Collaborative Learning Community (CLC) assignment.

This assignment requires completion of two parts: a presentation and an educational resource.

Part 1: Presentation

Create a PowerPoint presentation (15-20 slides, with speaker notes) for a staff training meeting on the pathophysiology and pharmacologic agents for a select disease process.

Each CLC will choose one disease process from the following list and obtain instructor approval to avoid duplication:

  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Asthma
  • Diabetes Type 2
  • Epilepsy
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  • Hypertension
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Peptic Ulcer Disease
  • Tuberculosis

Describe the physiology and pathophysiology of the disease, clinical manifestations, and evaluation (e.g., labs, imaging).

Describe the pharmacologic treatment of the disease, including pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug interactions, side effects, adverse reactions, and application of the nursing process in monitoring the drug therapy.

Part 2: Educational Resource

Using your selected disease process from Part 1, develop an educational resource that can assist staff in increasing patient knowledge of medications and medication compliance.

The vehicle for your educational resource could include pamphlets, handouts, or any other brief, concise medium to convey the information to staff.

General Requirements

Refer to the resource, “Creating Effective PowerPoint Presentations,” located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on completing this assignment in the appropriate style.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.

CLC – Staff Training – Rubric

Collapse All CLC – Staff Training – RubricCollapse All

Physiology and Pathophysiology

26.4 points

Criteria Description

Physiology and Pathophysiology

  1. 5: Excellent 93-100%

26.4 points

A description of physiology and pathophysiology of the disease, clinical manifestations, and evaluation is present. Supporting material is of exceptional quality and quantity.

  1. 4: Good 89-92%

24.29 points

A description of physiology and pathophysiology of the disease, clinical manifestations, and evaluation is presented. Supporting material is of above average quality and quantity.

  1. 3: Satisfactory 81-88%

23.23 points

A description of physiology and pathophysiology of the disease, clinical manifestations, and evaluation is adequately presented.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory 76-80%

21.12 points

A description of physiology and pathophysiology of the disease, clinical manifestations, and evaluation is present, but incomplete or inaccurate.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory 0-75%

0 points

A description of physiology and pathophysiology of the disease, clinical manifestations, and evaluation is not present.

Pharmacologic Treatment

26.4 points

Criteria Description

Pharmacologic Treatment

  1. 5: Excellent 93-100%

26.4 points

A description of pharmacologic treatment of the disease, including pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug interactions, side effects, adverse reactions, and application of the nursing process in monitoring drug therapy is presented in a thoughtful and insightful manner. Supporting material is of exceptional quality and quantity.

  1. 4: Good 89-92%

24.29 points

A description of pharmacologic treatment of the disease, including pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug interactions, side effects, adverse reactions, and application of the nursing process in monitoring drug therapy is adequately presented. Supporting material is of above average quality and quantity.

  1. 3: Satisfactory 81-88%

23.23 points

A description of pharmacologic treatment of the disease, including pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug interactions, side effects, adverse reactions, and application of the nursing process in monitoring drug therapy is adequately presented. Supporting material is of baseline acceptable quality and quantity.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory 76-80%

21.12 points

A description of pharmacologic treatment of the disease, including pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug interactions, side effects, adverse reactions, and application of the nursing process in monitoring drug therapy is present, but incomplete or inaccurate.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory 0-75%

0 points

A description of pharmacologic treatment of the disease, including pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug interactions, side effects, adverse reactions, and application of the nursing process in monitoring drug therapy is not present.

Educational Resource

26.4 points

Criteria Description

Educational Resource

  1. 5: Excellent 93-100%

26.4 points

An educational resource that can assist staff in increasing patient knowledge of medications and medication compliance is presented in a thoughtful and insightful manner. Supporting material is of exceptional quality and quantity.

  1. 4: Good 89-92%

24.29 points

An educational resource that can assist staff in increasing patient knowledge of medications and medication compliance is adequately presented. Supporting material is of above average quality and quantity.

  1. 3: Satisfactory 81-88%

23.23 points

An educational resource that can assist staff in increasing patient knowledge of medications and medication compliance is adequately presented. Supporting material is of baseline acceptable quality and quantity.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory 76-80%

21.12 points

An educational resource that can assist staff in increasing patient knowledge of medications and medication compliance is present, but incomplete or inaccurate.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory 0-75%

0 points

An educational resource that can assist staff in increasing patient knowledge of medications and medication compliance is not present.

Presentation of Content

26.4 points

Criteria Description

Presentation of Content

  1. 5: Excellent 93-100%

26.4 points

The content is written clearly and concisely. Ideas universally progress and relate to each other. The project includes motivating questions and advanced organizers. The project gives the audience a clear sense of the main idea.

  1. 4: Good 89-92%

24.29 points

The content is written with a logical progression of ideas and supporting information exhibiting a unity, coherence, and cohesiveness. Includes persuasive information from reliable sources.

  1. 3: Satisfactory 81-88%

23.23 points

The presentation slides are generally competent, but ideas may show some inconsistency in organization or in their relationships to each other.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory 76-80%

21.12 points

The content is vague in conveying a point of view and does not create a strong sense of purpose. Includes some persuasive information.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory 0-75%

0 points

The content lacks a clear point of view and logical sequence of information. Includes little persuasive information. Sequencing of ideas is unclear.

Layout

26.4 points

Criteria Description

Layout

  1. 5: Excellent 93-100%

26.4 points

The layout is visually pleasing and contributes to the overall message with appropriate use of headings, subheadings, and white space. Text is appropriate in length for the target audience and to the point. The background and colors enhance the readability of the text.

  1. 4: Good 89-92%

24.29 points

The layout background and text complement each other and enable the content to be easily read. The fonts are easy to read and point size varies appropriately for headings and text.

  1. 3: Satisfactory 81-88%

23.23 points

The layout uses horizontal and vertical white space appropriately. Sometimes the fonts are easy to read, but in a few places the use of fonts, italics, bold, long paragraphs, color, or busy background detracts and does not enhance readability.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory 76-80%

21.12 points

The layout shows some structure, but appears cluttered and busy or distracting with large gaps of white space or a distracting background. Overall readability is difficult due to lengthy paragraphs, too many different fonts, dark or busy background, overuse of bold, or lack of appropriate indentations of text.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory 0-75%

0 points

The layout is cluttered, confusing, and does not use spacing, headings, and subheadings to enhance the readability. The text is extremely difficult to read with long blocks of text, small point size for fonts, and inappropriate contrasting colors. Poor use of headings, subheadings, indentations, or bold formatting is evident.

Language Use and Audience Awareness (includes sentence construction, word choice, etc.)

8.8 points

Criteria Description

Language Use and Audience Awareness (includes sentence construction, word choice, etc.)

  1. 5: Excellent 93-100%

8.8 points

The writer uses a variety of sentence constructions, figures of speech, and word choice in distinctive and creative ways that are appropriate to purpose, discipline, and scope.

  1. 4: Good 89-92%

8.1 points

The writer is clearly aware of audience, uses a variety of appropriate vocabulary for the targeted audience, and uses figures of speech to communicate clearly.

  1. 3: Satisfactory 81-88%

7.74 points

Language is appropriate to the targeted audience for the most part.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory 76-80%

7.04 points

Some distracting inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. The writer exhibits some lack of control in using figures of speech appropriately.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory 0-75%

0 points

Inappropriate word choice and lack of variety in language use are evident. Writer appears to be unaware of audience. Use of primer prose indicates writer either does not apply figures of speech or uses them inappropriately.

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

17.6 points

Criteria Description

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

  1. 5: Excellent 93-100%

17.6 points

Writer is clearly in control of standard, written, academic English.

  1. 4: Good 89-92%

16.19 points

Slides are largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present.

  1. 3: Satisfactory 81-88%

15.49 points

Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory 76-80%

14.08 points

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory 0-75%

0 points

Slide errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning.

Documentation of Sources

17.6 points

Criteria Description

Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)

  1. 5: Excellent 93-100%

17.6 points

Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

  1. 4: Good 89-92%

16.19 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.

  1. 3: Satisfactory 81-88%

15.49 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.

  1. 2: Less Than Satisfactory 76-80%

14.08 points

Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.

  1. 1: Unsatisfactory 0-75%

0 points

Sources are not documented.

Total 176 points

Topic 7: Neurological, Musculoskeletal, And Integumentary System: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

Apr 14-20, 2022

Max Points:30

Objectives:

  1. Describe normal pathophysiology and alterations in the pathophysiology of neurological disorders, musculoskeletal, and integumentary system disorders.
  2. Integrate knowledge of pathophysiology and pharmacology into teaching and educational materials in diverse settings.
  3. Describe a pharmacological intervention using an evidence-based treatment guideline.

Topic 8: Endocrine System: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

Apr 21-27, 2022

Max Points:180

Objectives:

  1. Describe normal pathophysiology and alterations of the endocrine system.
  2. Integrate knowledge of pathophysiology and pharmacology into teaching and educational materials in diverse settings.
  3. Describe a pharmacological intervention using an evidence-based treatment guideline.

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