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POS 367 Arizona State University Paris Climate Agreement Discussion

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Do the answers on the worksheet( do not cite just use your own words)

Q1

1. What is the function or meaning of Galeano’s ant metaphor? (page 216). 2. What are some of the unintended or neglected consequences of urban development mentioned by Galeano? 3. In general, what is your reaction or opinion of Galeano’s criticisms? Do you find them convincing or not? Is there anything you would add? Anything you reject? 4. Does Galeano offer solutions (directly or indirectly)? If so, what? If not, what might be some solutions to the problems highlighted in the essay?

Q2

Watch the documentary, then

Gary Hustwit’s documentary Urbanized – part of a trilogy that includes Objectified, and Helvetica – focuses on the design aspect of cities.

1. What are some of the stakeholders of a city? Do these stakeholders have different interests? Explain. 2. What are some of the changes made to the transportation network of the city by the Mayor of Bogota, Colombia? How did the design decisions take poorer residents into account? What priorities are amplified by the design decisions and what is de-prioritized or under-emphasized in the design decisions? 3. How did the city of Copenhagen incentivize bicycling? What affect did it have on the city? Explain. 4. What unique issues emerged from the design of Brasilia, Brazil and why? 5. What unique issues emerged from the design of Phoenix, Arizona and why? Are you satisfied with the design choices and/or results? What would you propose to change, if anything, and how? Explain.

Q3

1. Urbanization – or movement to the city – is often described as an aspirational and voluntary decision made by rational individuals looking for work and a better life (i.e., cities have a “pull factor”). Davis, however, gives us another view of urbanization. What are some of the “push factors” that drive people out of the countryside or rural areas and into cities? 2. What are some reasons that people end up living and staying in slums? What are some barriers to social mobility that slumdwellers face? What are the general living conditions like in slums (i.e., what is lacking, or what is present)? 3. What are Structural Adjustment Policies (SAPs) and what does Davis credit them with in the 1980s? 4. What is the “informal sector”? What are the trends of the informal sector, what are its causes, and why is it important, according to Davis?

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