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Power Point on “Frozen Earth: The Once and Future Story of Ice Ages” by Douglas Macdougall


I need a Power Point created that summarizes this book (“Frozen Earth: The Once and Future Story of Ice Ages” by Douglas Macdougall.) I will be presenting this powerpoint in a speech, So please create a note sheet that scripts what I need to say per slide. have attached 2 PDFS, one being the instruction sheet for this assignment, and One being the Book.

**Please Follow the Instructions on the attached PDF carefully

**** For step #2 on the Instruction sheet, You are asked to relate 2 paragraphs from 2 different articles to the overall message of this book. The book should talk about topics that can relate to these paragraphs. Below I have included the 2 different paragraphs as well. Each paragraph should have its own slide.


If you have any questions or concerns, please do not hesitate to ask.

1st Paragraph:

Based on Edward Boyle and Lloyd Keigwin’s observations on the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation and Jean-Marc Barnola’s observations on the CO2 changes in the atmosphere due to the Vostok ice cores, the different Ice age type events from the last glacial-interglacial cycle are analyzed in this article. Thermohaline circulation is a general oceanic circulation that replaces deep seawater with surface water and surface seawater with deep water. The Vostok ice cores is a region of ice sheets in the East Antarctic Area. Simulations of Ice sheets from the northern hemisphere are created with an energy balance model (EBM) that is combined with vertical ice sheet models based on the Glen flow law. The EBM includes a realistic land-sea distribution which is the relation of how sea water changes the air temperature of land. The EBM also has a realistic depiction of how light, specifically from the sun, changes the temperature. With the addition of CO2 in the atmosphere and all the temperature changes that deal with the ocean, the Eurasion ice sheet completely collapsed, but the North American ice sheet didn’t. Based on all of this, it is suggested that more methods of obtaining feedback are necessary to explain the termination of the Eurasian ice sheet such as modeling the dynamics of the Laurentide complex, which has a marine life base, in a more accurate manner. The Laurentide Ice Sheets existed about 2.6 million years ago, and they covered most of Canada and the northern part of the United States.

2nd Paragraph:

The correlation between the surface temperature of the North Atlantic Sea and the humid climate of Africa 100 thousand years ago is determined by the use of two climate model simulations. Simulations with descriptive images on an Earth System Climate model show that the flow of freshwater associated with the heavy outpouring of ice sheets into the North Atlantic Sea, known as the Heinrich events, led the intertropical convergence zone over Africa to shift southward. A Heinrich event is whenever an iceberg breaks off a glacier and floats across the North Atlantic Sea. An intertropical convergence zone is a narrow point near the Earth’s equator that has low atmospheric pressure and it is also where northern and southern wind masses meet with one another. All this combined with the increased humidity in an area that is usually cool showed significant changes in the simulation of the African vegetation cover, especially in the Sahel, which is a semi-humid region in Africa that connects the Sahara Desert to the north and Sudanian Savanna to the south. We believe that the Heinrich events that constantly occurred throughout the last glacial cycle, which is the coldest period of an ice age, led to sudden changes in the climate of North, East, and West Africa, making them unsuitable living regions for hominin occupation, ultimately leading to the early migration out of Africa for Homo Sapiens. Hominin is a classification of the different evolutions of primates that include chimpanzees, bonobos, and humans. The Hominini name for humans is “Homo Sapien.”

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