The original meaning of “terrorism” was acts of violence carried out by the state against its own citizens. The French ‘Reign of Terror’ in the 1790s under the Jacobins was the first modern manifestation of state terrorism. Indeed, in 1798, terrorism was defined as a “regime of terror”. Since the late eighteenth century, many states – some looking back to the French ‘Reign of Terror’ as the quintessential moment of legitimate power – have engaged in acts of terrorism. This Discussion Board will explore state terrorism, with a particular focus on those acts of ‘terrorism from above’ that were performed in Russia, Germany and Italy during the early- to mid-twentieth century.
Note: You should make reference to the reading (including page numbers) to support the points you make.
1. Consider Paul Hagenloh’s definition of state terrorism as ‘explicit, targeted violence intended to punish, to install fear, and to reshape the social structure of the country’. Would you characterise Nazi Germany, Stalinist Russia, or Fascist Italy as terrorist states? If not, why not? If so, in what circumstances were their actions terroristic, and which actions are better defined in other ways? 2. Is the use of terror by state authorities ever justifiable? If so, when? If not, why not?
Please complete the attached reading which is chapter 11 and write a response to the questions above. This is a discussion piece of writing so no intro or conclusion is required. Just write a paragraph for each question to answer both questions.