# Statistics questions

Please answer with at least 100 words for each number, including references and citations.

1. Validity – The concept of validity and reliability is quite complex. You can actually spend multiple years studying validity in depth. I’m speaking from experience on this one. I actually took 2 years’ worth of classes on the concept of validity and reliability. There are multiple intricacies and details associated with these 2 concepts. When conducting statistical analyses it’s important to think of the impact on validity and reliability.

Validity is more critical to measurement than reliability. A valid measurement is reliable, but a reliable measurement may not be valid. Do you agree with these statements? Explain your answer. Provide examples to support your rationale.

2.  Consultant Scenario – This is unrelated to sampling, but a thought that had come to mind. When I think of sampling I often equate that to recruiting candidates. When I’m hiring a new employee I’d like to think that I’m reaching the whole population of eligible candidates. What I’m left with are a sample of candidates that applied. I’m going to pose a scenario to give you some experience evaluating 2 potential consultants on the basis of what you’ve learned thus far. You have 2 choices for a consultant and you are forced to select one. The type of job involves similar information that we learned about. The job title and company are irrelevant. Here is a quick bio on both of them.

Choice 1: I am 27 year old recent graduate with my Ph D and 4 years experience in a variety of areas of human resources. I have taught college for 2 years and conducted multiple studies on customer satisfaction, but I have no feedback from past clients due to my limited work experience. My 5 years of research is using convenience samples of college students, coworkers and friends. I am very familiar with research design and my sample sizes are around 300 per study. I can generalize my results using a sample size of 300 to millions of people. I know you don’t believe a sample of 600 can generalize to a population of millions. However, I just showed you examples of my research findings.

Choice 2: I am a 45 year old graduate with a bachelor’s degree in psychology. I have 20 years experience working in retail management and I have provided references from current and former customers and employees I have worked with. My most recent position is Director of Organization Development, which I have held for the past 5 years. I have successfully integrated my company through 2 mergers and acquisitions. I have a long history of customer satisfaction as I have dealt with many different types of customers and have created successful recovery strategies. I have administered customer satisfaction and employee engagement surveys to employees and customers and have made changes to the operation of the store based on the results of these findings.

Which one do you choose and why? Support your rationale using some of the concepts you have learned so far. Comment on their potential ability to know and understand research design, surveys, sampling techniques and operationalization of variables.

3.  Collection of Data – With the constant change in technology, there are many new techniques and methods that can be used within research. These new techniques could be related to survey design. Some examples of technology within survey design are survey monkey, qualtrics, snap, etc. Each one of these are survey techniques to allow for data collection. How does technological advancement affect the ability to collect data? Provide examples. Does this advancement increase the chance for errors? Explain.

4.  Scenario – With the introduction of technology, the conceptual understanding of concepts is lost. This makes technology a great thing as well as could lead to problems. If I’m trained as an organizational psychologist, but companies could be making advances flying planes that makes it easier for the pilot to fly, would you want me to be your pilot? The same holds true for creating surveys. Would you want a pilot creating the survey to drive the business results that a CEO wants? (Now there’s a fine line because you need subject matter experts to provide the technical information, but you also need someone that understands survey writing to enhance validity and reliability)

5. Survey Items – Scenario

In looking at the below survey questions, what are your thoughts on each one? Are they good survey items? If yes or no, explain why? Do you see any issues with these items? If yes or no, explain why?

1. About how many cups of coffee do you drink a day?

_________Cups of coffee

2. Should the emphasis of the police department on the catching and fining of traffic violators be?

A. Greater

B. The Same

C. Less

3. Do you favor or oppose not allowing the state to raise taxes without approval of 60% of the voters?

A. Favor

B. Oppose

4. How often did you attend religious services this past year?

A. Never

B. Rarely

C. Occasionally

D. Regularly

5. Do Not Know Option in Survey – Discuss the accuracy of data, advantages, and disadvantages.

6.  Likert Scale Option in Survey – Compare with Do Not Know, discuss advantages and disadvantages.

7.  How can a company improve its brand, image, and products by involving consumers and phone interviews/surveys?  Discuss the impact on customer service.

8. What should take place after a survey is completed? Discuss the importance of this process.