summarize ans essay


How to Summarize a Research Article

Research articles use a standard format to clearly communicate information about an
experiment. A research article usually has seven major sections: Title, Abstract,
Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion, and References.

Determine your focus

The first thing you should do is to decide why you need to summarize the article. If the
purpose of the summary is to take notes to later remind yourself about the article you may
want to write a longer summary. However, if the purpose of summarizing the article is to
include it in a paper you are writing, the summary should focus on how the articles

relates specifically to your paper.

Reading the Article

Allow enough time. Before you can write about the research, you have to understand it.
This can often take a lot longer than most people realize. Only when you can clearly
explain the study in your own words to someone who hasn’t read the article are you ready
to write about it.

Scan the article first. If you try to read a new article from start to finish, you’ll get
bogged down in detail. Instead, use your knowledge of APA format to find the main
points. Briefly look at each section to identify:

  • the research question and reason for the study (stated in the Introduction)
  • the hypothesis or hypotheses tested (Introduction)
  • how the hypothesis was tested (Method)
  • the findings (Results, including tables and figures)
  • how the findings were interpreted (Discussion)
    Underline key sentences or write the key point (e.g., hypothesis, design) of each
    paragraph in the margin. Although the abstract can help you to identify the main points,
    you cannot rely on it exclusively, because it contains very condensed information.
    Remember to focus on the parts of the article that are most relevant.
    Read for depth, read interactively. After you have highlighted the main points, read each
    section several times. As you read, ask yourself these questions:

    • How does the design of the study address the research questions?
    • How convincing are the results? Are any of the results surprising?
    • What does this study contribute toward answering the original question?
    • What aspects of the original question remain unanswered?
      Plagiarism. Plagiarism is always a risk when summarizing someone else’s work. To
      avoid it:

      • Take notes in your own words. Using short notes or summarizing key points in
        your own words forces you to rewrite the ideas into your own words later.
      • If you find yourself sticking closely to the original language and making only
        minor changes to the wording, then you probably don’t understand the study

Writing the Summary

Like an abstract in a published research article, the purpose of an article summary is to
give the reader a brief overview of the study. To write a good summary, identify what
information is important and condense that information for your reader. The better you
understand a subject, the easier it is to explain it thoroughly and briefly.

Write a first draft. Use the same order as in the article itself. Adjust the length
accordingly depending on the content of your particular article and how you will be using
the summary.

  • State the research question and explain why it is interesting.
  • State the hypotheses tested.
  • Briefly describe the methods (design, participants, materials, procedure, what was
    manipulated [independent variables], what was measured [dependent variables],
    how data were analyzed.
  • Describe the results. Were they significant?
  • Explain the key implications of the results. Avoid overstating the importance of
    the findings.
  • The results, and the interpretation of the results, should relate directly to the
    For the first draft, focus on content, not length (it will probably be too long). Condense
    later as needed. Try writing about the hypotheses, methods and results first, then about
    the introduction and discussion last. If you have trouble on one section, leave it for a
    while and try another.
    If you are summarizing an article to include in a paper you are writing it may be
    sufficient to describe only the results if you give the reader context to understand those
    For example: “Smith (2004) found that participants in the motivation group scored higher
    than those in the control group, confirming that motivational factors play a role in
    impression formation”. This summary not only tells the results but also gives some
    information on what variables were examined and the outcome of interest. In this case it
    is very important to introduce the study in a way that the brief summary makes sense in
    the larger context
    Edit for completeness and accuracy. Add information for completeness where necessary.
    More commonly, if you understand the article, you will need to cut redundant or less
    important information.
    Stay focused on the research question, be concise, and avoid generalities.
    Edit for style. Write to an intelligent, interested, naive, and slightly lazy audience (e.g.,
    yourself, your classmates). Expect your readers to be interested, but don’t make them

struggle to understand you. Include all the important details; don’t assume that they are
already understood.

  • Eliminate wordiness, including most adverbs (“very”, “clearly”). “The results
    clearly showed that there was no difference between the groups” can be shortened
    to “There was no significant difference between the groups”.
  • Use specific, concrete language. Use precise language and cite specific examples
    to support assertions. Avoid vague references (e.g. “this illustrates” should be
    “this result illustrates”).
  • Use scientifically accurate language. For example, you cannot “prove”
    hypotheses (especially with just one study). You “support” or “fail to find support
    for” them.
  • Rely primarily on paraphrasing, not direct quotes. Direct quotes are seldom
    used in scientific writing. Instead, paraphrase what you have read. To give due
    credit for information that you paraphrase, cite the author’s last name and the year
    of the study (Smith, 1982).
  • Re-read what you have written. Ask others to read it to catch things that you’ve

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