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write a one page post. 1 page single space. DUE SUNDAY 08/02/2020 BY NOON


1)Discussion 4: Somatic and Sleep Disorders

Select one disorder of interest from the DSM-5 covered this week. In your initial posting, discuss the diagnostic criteria, treatment options, and prognosis of the disorder. Use at least two current references other than the DSM-5. After you have posted your initial posting by the third day of the module, respond substantively to at least three peers by the end of the module for a total of 4 post. APA, 3 CITATION, APA, REFERENCES


Factitious disorder considered as a serious mental health condition by which individuals involved sometimes fake, or induce a physical or mental illness to receive sympathy and attention (Smith, 2019). These individuals often go to great lengths to deceive others by seeking attention for themselves, they pretend to be sick, manipulate medical condition, even test results and can induce sickness on themselves that might result to harm to a vulnerable person, even their children, family members, or other adults (Smith, 2019).

Diagnostic criteria

Factitious previously referred to as Munchhausen syndrome poses a serious challenge to the clinician in making a diagnosis when presented to the clinic, people with this disorder can be very manipulative making diagnosis difficult (Smith, 2019).

DSM-5 diagnosing criteria specify the following:

Factitious disorder imposed on self:

  1. Falsification of physical or psychological signs or symptoms, or induction of injury or disease, associated with identified deception
  2. The individual present himself or herself to others as ill, impaired or injured
  3. The deceptive behavior is evident even in the absence of obvious external rewards
  4. The behavior is not better explained by another mental disorder, such as delusional disorder or another psychotic disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

Factitious disorder imposed on another:

  1. Falsification of physical or psychological signs or symptoms or induction of injury or disease, in another, associated with identified deception
  2. The individual present another individual to others as ill, impaired or injured
  3. The deceptive behavior is evident even in the absence of obvious external rewards
  4. The behavior is not better explained by another mental disorder, such as delusional disorder or another psychotic disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

Treatment options

Treatment of factitious disorder can be challenging for clinicians since these people tend not to be aware that they have a mental health problem (Smith, 2019). The priority goal is to make sure that the individuals are safe from injury or harm. An effective treatment is Psychotherapy, which might include cognitive behavior, and research has not shown the effectiveness of medication to improve the symptoms of factitious disorders (Carnahan & Jha, 2020). Medication can be introduced according to patient compliance to treat related symptoms as presented by individuals, such as depression and anxiety (Carnahan & Jha, 2020).

Prognosis of disorder

The individual with a factitious disorder, in general, has a poor prognosis of this illness, because the majority of them always are in denial of their behavior and others do not seek treatment. Some of the individuals that seek treatment usually do not complete treatment, they tend to drop out of the therapy, the ones that continue therapy especially with strong family support, evidence shows a favorable outcome to their quality of life (Carnahan & Jha, 2020). The individuals without appropriate treatment might end up with depression and others with a comorbid mood, anxiety, or end up with substance abuse disorder (Carnahan & Jha, 2020).


American Psychiatric Association, (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA.

Carnahan, K. T., Jha, A. (2020). Factitious Disorder. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557547/

Smith, K. (2019). Factitious Disorder: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment. Retrieved from https://www.psycom.net/factitious-disorder/



Pica is an eating disorder, which is known as the recurrent, consumption of non-nutritional diet, nonfood substance including dirt, chalk, or paper (Delaney, Eddy, Hartmann, Becker, Murray & Thomas, 2015). The items eating by an individual has minimal nutritional value. For example, the items eating have low-calorie foods and are consumed in excess with the intention of weight management. It is diagnosed in an individual who practices it for a consistent six months. Pica is further described as an intense craving and purposeful consumption of items classified as not food (Chung et al., 2019). Individuals with Pica behavior usually feed on substances such as soil known as geophagy and raw starches termed amylophagy. Pica is identified among vulnerable populations, including pregnant women and children (Chung et al., 2019).

Diagnostic Criteria

An individual is diagnosed based on the following criteria, according to DSM 5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

1. Individuals are consuming nonnutritive and nonfood items for at least a month.

2. The nonnutritive and nonfood items eating serve no purpose in the developmental level of the person.

3. The Pica behavior is not supported by and individual’s culture

4. Pica behavior is severe and will require clinical attention if it involves disorders such as intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and medical issues such as pregnancy.

Treatment Options

Pica is described as a potentially deadly form of self-injurious behavior and often diagnose in individuals with developmental and intellectual disabilities (Call, Simmons, Mevers, & Alvarez, 2015). Per several studies, a behavioral intervention is an adopted treatment that helps to reduce the pica attitude. Behavioral intervention tends to be successful in about one out of four individuals. Pica is associated with risks such as the likelihood of being exposed to germs, choking, ingesting a harmful or life-threatening object, which will involve surgery or death (Schmidt et al., 2017). Hence, employing critical treatment such as is automatic reinforcement is essential.

Prognosis of the Disorder

Factors such as the environment serve as a risk for pica behavior. For instance, lack of parental guidance and developmental delay is associated with the disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Therefore, as future PMHNP assessing patients with pica behaviors, the background is essential in detecting the cause and will guide select the appropriate treatment. Pica can lead to a health issue and even death due to complications that occur as a result of eating items that are hazardous to the body.


American Psychiatric Association. (2013). American Psychiatric Association. (5th, Ed.) Washington, DC.

Call, N. A., Simmons, C. A., Mevers, J. E., & Alvarez, J. P. (2015). Clinical outcomes of behavioral treatments for pica in children with developmental disabilities. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 45, 2105–2114. doi:10.1007/s10803-015-2375-z

Chung, E. O., Mattah, B., Hickey, M. D., Salmen, C. R., Milner, E. M., Bukusi, E. A., et al. (2019). Characteristics of pica behavior among mothers around Lake Victoria, Kenya: A Cross-sectional study. International journal of environmental research, 16 (14), 1-12. doi:10.3390/ijerph16142510

Delaney, C. B., Eddy, K. T., Hartmann, A. S., Becker, A. E., Murray, H. B., & Thomas, J. J. (2015). Rumination disorder rd is the recurrent, effortless regurgitation of food, which is subsequently rechewed, re-swallowed, or spit out. The behavior is not due to a medical condition, such as gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD), and occurs without nausea or retching. When it presents comorbidly with another mental disorder, rumination behavior must be severe enough to require additional clinical care. A formal DSM-5 diagnosis cannot be a con. The International journal of eating disorders, 48 (2), 238–248. doi:10.1002/eat.22279

Schmidt, J. D., Long, A., Goetzel, A. L., Tung, C., Pizarro, E., Phillips, C., et al. (2017). Decreasing pica attempts by manipulating the environment to support prosocial behavior. Journal of Developmental & Physical Disabilities , 29, :683–697. doi: 10.1007/s10882-017-9548-y

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