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Bernard’s Discrimination Model.


Bernard’s Discrimination Model.

Bernard’s Discrimination Model.


The assignment (1–3 pages)

  • Briefly describe each of the three roles in Bernard’s Discrimination Model (teacher/educator, consultant, and counselor).
  • Explain how and when good supervisors attend to vicarious trauma in these roles.
  • Explain how you, as a supervisee, should respond to a supervisor acting in each of those three roles.
  • Using Learning Resources or other current literature to support your responses.

Learning Resources


  • Course Text: Secondary Traumatic Stress: Self-Care Issues for Clinicians, Researchers, and Educators
    • Chapter 8, “Painful Pedagogy: Teaching About Trauma in Academic and Training Sessions”
  • Book Excerpt: Bernard, J. M. (1997). The discrimination model. In C. E. Watkins, Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of psychotherapy supervision (pp. 310–327). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons. Used by permission of John Wiley and Sons Inc. via the Copyright Clearance Center.
  • Article: Roach, L. F., & Young, M. E. (2007). Do counselor education programs promote wellness in their students? Counselor Education & Supervision, 47(1), 29–45.
  • Article: Sommer, C., & Cox, J. (2005). Elements of supervision in sexual violence counselors’ narratives: A qualitative analysis. Counselor Education & Supervision45(2), 119–134.

You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.

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